SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Sakshi Garg
Seet Li Wen, Joanna
Sim Yu Hui, Kellie
Group Reference: F
1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum
[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore
[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households
An investigation of how the steepness of the copper pipes affects the rate of desalination in our set-up.
An example of the circular shape of the copper pipes.
2. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:
Desalination is the process of removing salt from seawater to make fresh water safe for drinking. (Aintablian, X. W., 2014) Many countries are using desalination as a way of creating a more reliable water supply that doesn't depend on rain. Desalination produces drinking water and concentrate (the water that contains the salts that were removed in the desalination process, which is sometimes called brine). The dominant technology used in desalination today is reverse osmosis, which involves forcing water through semi-permeable membranes to remove salts and other impurities. (athirstyplanet, 2014)
What is the difference between distillation and desalination?
Distillation is the oldest and most commonly used method of desalination. Distillation is a phase separation method whereby saline water is heated to produce water vapor, which is then condensed to produce freshwater. The various distillation processes used to produce potable water, including MSF, MED, VC, and waste-heat evaporators, all generally operate on the principle of reducing the vapor pressure of water within the unit to permit boiling to occur at lower temperatures, without the use of additional heat. Distillation units routinely use designs that conserve as much thermal energy as possible by interchanging the heat of condensation and heat of vaporization within the units. The major energy requirement in the distillation process thus becomes providing the heat for vaporization to the feedwater.
In a salt solution of water and sodium chloride, when water evaporates, the sodium chloride is left behind, because water forms a gas much more easily than sodium chloride does. (Barrans, R., 2014) Evaporation is when a liquid changes into a gas. Evaporation is specifically when a liquid turns to gas on its surface without boiling. sodium chloride, however, doesn't become a liquid until it reaches 801°C. (Bobbypfeifer, n.d.) Because of this, sodium chloride crystallises when the salt solution gets boiled.
How is salinity measured?
Salinity is just one of the factors affecting the quality of water. There are many other factors that will influence the quality of water: such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, nutrients, heavy metals, odour and turbidity. (dpi, 2000) A salinometer/salinity meter is a machine that is capable of measuring the table salt (NaCl) content, known as salinity, of a solution. (Hawk, R., & Hubbard, E, n.d.) A salinometer generally works by passing an electric current through any known mass of water. Since salt water conducts electricity much more easily than pure water the salinity content of water can be easily calculated. Because of this salinometers are also known as conductivity meters. (Jafery, A., 2014) Most conductivity meters give readings in microSiemens per cm (µS/cm). (Leonhard, L. D., n.d.)
Low temperature thermal desalination
Geothermal energy is a source of renewable energy and the oceans are a major alternative source of water.
Solar desalination is when the solar collector collects energy from the sun’s radiation that is then evaporated, condensed and separated into seawater and distilled fresh water. Then, the seawater is then recycled to be used as cooling fluid for the condenser, and the cycle continues.
Low temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) process uses the available temperature gradient between two water bodies or flows to evaporate the warmer water at low pressures and condense the resultant vapour with the colder water to obtain fresh water.
Estimated of the order of 1.6 €/m3 (SGD 0.268 cents/l)
Averages about USD $1.52 -USD $2.05 per cubic metre of water produced (SGD 0.189 - SGD 0.254 cents/l
A geothermal facility normally uses 400 square meters of land per GWh.
Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF)
Multi-Effect Distillation (MED)
Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD)
Membrane Processes (MP)
Other Processes (OP)
Distillation Processes (DP)
Membrane Processes (MP)
Thermal Processes (TP)
In the MSF process, seawater is heated in the brine heater. This is done by condensing steam on a bank of tubes that carry seawater which passes through the vessel. This heated seawater then flows into another vessel where the ambient pressure is lower, causing the water to immediately boil. The sudden introduction of the heated water into the chamber causes it to boil rapidly, almost exploding or flashing into steam.
MED method is based on the multi-effect distillation rising film principle at low evaporation temperatures (less than 70°C) due to low, almost vacuum, pressure prevailing in the vessels. The rising effect principle takes advantage of the fact that the inner tube surfaces are always covered by a thin film of feed water that prevents scale formation.
The vapor compression (VC) distillation process is generally used in combination with other processes and by itself for small and medium scale seawater desalting applications. The heat for evaporating the water comes from the compression of vapour (a kind of “open loop” heat pump) rather than the direct exchange of heat from steam produced in a boiler.
MP: In nature, membranes play an important role in the separation of salts, including both the process of dialysis and osmosis, occurs in the body. Membranes are used in two commercially important desalting processes: electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO). These processes are not suitable to be integrated directly into a geothermal system (ED may be used with geothermal power).
OP: A number of other processes have been used to desalt saline waters. These processes have not achieved the level of commercial success that distillation, ED, and RO have, but they may prove valuable under special circumstances or with further development.
DP: Since thermal energy represents a large portion of the overall desalting costs, distillation processes often recover and reuse waste heat from electrical power generating plants to decrease overall energy requirements. Boiling in successive stages each operated at a lower temperature and pressure can also significantly reduce the amount of energy needed.
MP: In nature, membranes play an important role in the separation of salts, including both the process of dialysis and osmosis, occurs in th-e body. Membranes are used in two commercially important desalting processes: electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO). These processes are not suitable to be integrated directly into a geothermal system (ED may be used with geothermal power).
TP: The thermal desalination process uses energy to evaporate water and subsequently condense it again.
Geothermal submersible pumps and inverters installed at the production wells.
Piping network conveying the geothermal water to the main Plant. Buried steel or fiberglass piping will be used. Closed, pressurized at 10 bars maximum.
Power and data transmission lines from the main plant to the wells.
ORC unit, transforming approximately 7% of geothermal energy to electricity designed to generate approximately 470 kWe.
MED-TVC seawater desalination unit providing 75- 80 m3/h desalinated water.
Main heat exchanger, transferring the energy from the hot geothermal water exiting the ORC unit to the MED-TVC desalination unit.
Reinjection wells (RE I and II) located at the margin of the geothermal field, close to the coast, downstream and at lower elevation of the main Plant, in order to minimize water transmission costs and avoid disturbing the hot part of the geothermal aquifer, well E will also operate as a reinjection well, due to its low well-head temperature (only 55 °C).
Geothermal water transmission lines from the main heat exchanger to the reinjection wells: buried steel or fiberglass piping, closed pressurized system at 10 bars maximum, no extra pumping.
Seawater transmission lines conveying 1000 m3/h cooling seawater to the MED- TVC unit plus 200-575 m3/h cooling water for the ORC unit: Buried polyethylene piping, seawater intake and disposal from a trench close to the sea line, pumping station close to the intake point.
Desalinated water transmission line from the plant to the water tanks near the town of Adamas: Buried polyethylene piping.
Power substation for power provision or delivery to the local power net: 500 kWe.
Main computer monitoring and control system for real time data logging and automation control.
Solar panels to harness solar energy and produce electricity from the power of the sun.
Desalination unit to remove the high salt content found in the water.
Utilizing flash evaporator, main condenser, vacuum pumping system, fresh water and warm water pumps.
Temperature required for the process to occur
*depends on location and scenario*
*depends on location and scenario*
40-50°C < Conventional)
Rank in Cost (1,2,3)
Rank in effectiveness(1,2,3)
Mechanical Pumping required?
Waste energy used?
Geothermal energy provides a stable and reliable heat supply 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, ensuring the stability of the thermal processes of desalination.
Geothermal desalination is cost effective, as fresh water costs of less than 1 Euro/ m3 are possible.
Geothermal desalination is friendly to the environment, as only renewable energy is used with no emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
There is no possibility of bacterial contamination or pollution
Solar distillation technology can be used to make saline or brackish water potable
It can be implemented even
with a low temperature gradient of about 8-10°C between the two water
Fairly cost-prohibitive because of the price for installation
Can only work under very specific geographical and climatic conditions.
Brine (side product of desalination) has a super saturation of salt and is usually pumped back into the ocean. Ocean species then cannot cope with the changes.
Chemicals produced during desalination often find their way back into the ocean, where they poison ocean species.
High power consumption
Disposal of the concentrated brine
In most desalination plants, saltwater is converted fresh water and brine. Freshwater is the natural occurring water in the Earth. It is charaterized as having a low concentration of dissolved salt and other dissolved solids.Seawater and brackish water dont come under this category. Brine is usually a solution of salt which is left after water evaporates .For example, in experiments/desalination, brine/salt is always left . Salts evaporation point is higher than 100℃ causing water to evaporate prior to the evaporation of the salt molecules.
There are varying degrees of salinity in water, which affects the difficulty and expense of treatment, and the level of saline is typically measured in parts per million (ppm). What constitutes salinity levels? : 1,000 ppm – 3,000 ppm is low salinity, 3,000 ppm – 10,000 ppm is moderate salinity, and 10,000 ppm – 35,000 ppm is high salinity.
What it is: Reverse Osmosis works by using a high pressure pump to increase the pressure on the salt side of the RO and force the water across the semi-permeable RO membrane, leaving almost all (around 95% to 99%) of dissolved salts behind in the reject stream. (no author, 2014)
Advantages: Many RO systems are fully automated and designed to start-up and shutdown automatically. Maintenance is also easy. (no author, 2014)
Disadvantages: There is removal of most minerals from the water and the waste water removed during the process. It is also time-consuming and costly. (no author, 2012)
Diagram: (alkalinewaterplus, 2014)
After researching extensively about different types of desalination systems/ methods used around the world to provide freshwater to people from different walks of life. We have decided to use the solar humidification as it is one of the most widely used methods and it does not require hefty equipment. The solar humidification method is a thermal water desalination method. It is based on evaporation of sea water oilar to the water cycle but it is carried out over a much shorteer time frame.In small communities where salt water and intense sunlight are both abundant, solar humidification can be used. The heat of the Sun partially vapour brackish water and condensation of the generated humid air which is water vapour (gaseous state of water).This process is simorizes salt water under a transparent cover. On the underside of the cover, the vapour condenses and flows into a collecting trough. (encyclopedia, 2014) However, we have chosen to adapt to time constraints and use a hot plate instead as it is a steady heat supplier instead of the sun.
This was our first idea. It uses a glass tank to contain the water and the independent variable is the angle of inclination of the cooler surface at the top.
- The glass tank would crack due to the heat.
- The beaker in the center would be affected by the heat, which would make the pure water in it evaporate as well, therefore rendering the entire system useless.
Thus, we made a decision to improve our design and use the updated version.
- The copper pipes are good heat conductors and therefore allow the water vapour to cool faster.
- The salt water pumped inside the copper pipes can capture and contain heat better than fresh water
- By having multiple copper pipes, the surface area for the water to condense is larger and allows the water to condense faster
- The use of a coat over the beaker is essential because, without it, the beaker would crack due to uneven thermal heating. With the coat, the heat is distributed more evenly and is more efficient.
This design will not work when scaled because, when the saltwater in the copper pipes circulates multiple times, the saltwater will gain heat and will not be efficient for condensation anymore unless, a coolant is applied to it. With this design, it is likely that the water will drip/splash out of the beaker instead of in it.
We didn't choose this idea because of the saltwater heating up and not being an efficient coolant being our primary concern. So we decide to instead use the saltwater coolant as a source to feed the water which will evaporate. Our other concern was that the beaker would not be an efficient containment unit so we decided to replace it with a “tray”.
Proposed idea for piping the water
Picture of tubing
This cross section is a description on how the tubing was going to look like. It had numerous holes in the middle to allow the connection of multiple rubber tubes as they were going to be the one transporting the water through the hollow copper pipes. In the end instead of cutting and making the pipes, we bought a 5 pin rubber tube splitter.
A. Question or Problem being addressed
One of the 21st century problems is shortage of water. Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It currently affects around 2.8 billion people around the world. Water shortage has been a problem all over the world for a long time already. According to(Wheida & Verhoeven), Libya’s water resources is being deeply affected because of its political problem. It has a lack of water due to its unreliable water resources. They don’t have a proper way to attain water .In order to save themselves, Libya has aquifers deep below their desert sand. Another example of a country which was suffering water shortage but it is trying to control the problem. It is the popular country Australia. According to (Water shortage in, 2007) and a few other sources,their lack of water problem has been going on for several years already and the citizens know the importance of water. They have a dry continent resulting in numerous droughts. However, recently, there have been a flood. Although it is perceived as a misfortune, it is actually a silver lining. Australians can use desalination methods and use the abundant water to their advantage. People around the world continuously raise awareness on water .In reference to (Thirsty giant, -), another example of shortage of water is India. Due to its extremely large population, providing water to everyone is not always easy. There are large shortages of water and children on the streets are forced to drink unhygienic water.The same goes for Africa where the pregnancy rate is extremely high and the population rate is extremely large(Lewis, 2010). After so many examples, we cannot let the problem of water shortage slip .We have to do something on this issue.
According to (Tortajada, 2007), desalinated water is the easiest and the fastest way to produce clean and safe water for consumption.In reference to (Banat, Qiblawey & Al-Nasser, 2012) by researching about the desalination system, we can gain understanding to find potential solution to rural areas to provide freshwater to those small communities in isolated areas who have
1) Saline water problems
2) No access to electricity grid
3) Plenty of solar resources
Thus in order to gain knowledge on the desalination system and how such a simple process provides a basic necessity (water) for so many people around the world, we have decided to research about a basic desalination system. Deaths of numerous people occurring in the world due to water shortages further fueled our desire to get involved in knowing about desalination systems.Lack of clean water also poses a great threat to risks of the health.
The research we are performing will enable us to find out which angle of inclination is the most suitable to allow maximum water to be collected to in the short period of time. This research will enable us to provide valuable information to future researches regarding this topic.
Now a bit more information about desalination. It is turning saline water into freshwater. (US Department of Interior, 2014) and it is being used more and more around the world to provide people with needed freshwater . However, we can easily obtain freshwater if not for the salt particles found in salt water.
This is what we are trying to do in our research. Convert saline water to freshwater to gain a greater understanding of desalination.
B. Goals/Expected Outcomes/Hypotheses
Our goal is to establish a self-sustaining, continuing desalination system to allow esteemed researchers in the area of desalination with the ultimate goal of providing information to the designers. We aim to find out the best angle and amount of heat that will ensure maximum collection of drinkable water. We also want to find out what is the perfect flow rate of water that will allow efficient water desalination to occur. Through our research, the greater understanding of different types of angles and how the water pressure affects evaporation and condensation of water. With our research, the future generations of researchers can have an insight on how the structure affects desalination. This desalination project also uses the technology of a silicon tubing which allows water to be able to pass through without much difficulty. The tubing is also extremely flexible to allow it to be bent into different sides.
After comparing and analysing our data, we expect to find that the water collected will vary when we change the angle of the copper pipes at which they are slanted to allow gravity to ‘do its magic’ (pushing water droplets to the tip before they finally fall into the beaker). We are using copper pipes as it is a good conductor of heat, thus, it will lose heat to its coolant (salt water) faster as the steam condenses on it. When the steam condenses on the pipe, it will lose heat while the pipes will gain heat. Finding out what are the plausible angles, flow rate of water and the optimum heat will allow for optimum water collection in the beaker which will be placed beside the hotplate with the help of the translucent rubber tubing.
We expect the ideal angle for desalination to occur to be 45º. This is because the pipes will be slightly tilted and at the same time will perform the function of being a platform for the water droplets to condense on. The pipes will be glued together horizontally so that there is the maximum use of surface area . This enables maximum usage of resources and the space given to us. The salinity of the water collected in the beaker will be lower than the salinity of the water in the round-bottom flask which will be placed on the hot plate. This is because brine (dissolved salts) is left behind when water evaporates as the boiling point of salt is greater than the boiling point of water.
- The amount of heat that is going to be applied to the beaker (from the hot mantle)
- The amount of water passing through the copper pipes varied
- We will be adjusting the tap to determine the amount of water flowing through.
- Turning the tap in anti-clockwise direction according to length.
- Total length possibly turned: 5cm
- Angle that the copper pipes are going to be slanted at
- Flow rate of the saltwater through the hollow copper pipes
The flow rate of the water passing through the hollow tubes can be varied by changing the pressure of the water. The water flowing through the hollow copper wires will be water from tap as it has a lower temperature than freshwater. Its temperature is 27℃ while the temperature of freshwater is 32℃.
We will be measuring the flow rate by marking out the different sides of the tap and turning them towards that direction. Thus, the flow rate can now be measured.
- Amount of water collected in the beaker
- Salinity of saltwater ~3.5% (35 g/L, or 599 mM)
- Amount of time it takes to collect the water~1h
- Material of the pipes
- Amount of water in the round-bottom flask
- Length of the rubber tubes
Our 3D Model
This cross section is a description on how the tubing is going to look like. It will have numerous holes in the middle to allow the connection of multiple rubber tubes as they are going to be the one transporting the water through the hollow copper pipes. We will be using a wire cutter to cut these wires.
Hot Plate/Heating Mantle
It is used as the heat source in our experiment. The hot plate will ensure the easy adjustment of the amount of heat used in each experiment. The wide surface area is also able to accommodate the coat and the round bottom flask inside.
Round Bottom Flask
This flask is big enough to hold enough water needed for the experiment. It does not get burnt in the process as there is a protective coating surrounding it.
As copper is a good conductor of heat and is cheap, we decided to use copper pipes of our cooling system and the surface which the water droplets will condense on. The copper pipes will allow the cool water to flow through, can due to it’s conductivity of heat, the water vapour from the evaporating salt water will be able to cool quickly and form water droplets. After which, it will flow to the strip of metal.
The coat is an insulator to make sure that the round bottom flask will not come into contact with the heat.
It is used to direct the water to the second beaker .
The rubber tubes will be used to transport the water between the source of water (tap) and the copper pipes.Due to their flexibility and insulative properties, it is the optimum material and object (that can be easily obtained).
Beaker (to collect water)
The beaker is transparent, which will allow us to easily find out the amount of water collected and it has markings on it, allowing us to measure the amount of water easily.
Based on these variables, we have created 3 hypotheses for our experiments:
- Hypothesis 1: A 40º-50º angle will be the optimum range of angles that will affect the condensation of the water vapour and allow for the most efficient water collection
- Hypothesis 2: We predict that the higher the flow rate of water through the hollow copper pipes, the faster the rate of condensation, resulting in a greater amount of water.
- Hypothesis 3: We predict that the greater the amount of heat used to boil the water, the faster the rate of evaporation, which will result in a faster amount of time for the water to be collected in the beaker.
C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans)
- Heating mantle/Hot plate x1
- Retort stand x1
- Water (50- 75 litres)
- Round-bottom flask x1 (Evaporation Chamber)
- Beaker x1 (400ml)
- Bottle of silicon sealant x1
- Saline metre x1
- Datalogger x1
- Scissors x1
- Ruler x1 (15cm)
- Pencil x1
- Glue gun x2
- Thermometer x1
- Masking Tape/Duct Tape x1
- Salt x4 packs (250g)
- Glass stirring rod x1
- String(5m) x 1
- 4mm rubber tubing x 10m
- Plastic pipe (115 cm) x 3
- Strong knife x1
- Stopwatch x 1
- Bucket x1
- Measuring Cylinder(100ml) x1
- Metal plates x3
- Notebook x1 (Recording data)
- 16mm rubber tubing x5m
- Rubber cutter x1
- Measuring tape x1
- 5 pin plastic tube splitters x2 $3 each
- Tubing bender x1 pack(of 5) $8
- Tubing cutter x2 $10 each
- Round bottom flask holder x1
- Copper pipes x9 (0.9mx 0.355 mm)
- Weighing balance x1
- Small spoon x1
- Small circular filtration paper x7 pieces
- Testing salinity level of sea water
- Prepare a datalogger and a salinity meter.
- Connect the data logger and the salinity meter together
- Press the POWER button to turn the meter on.
- Press the MODE/CAL button until the COND, SALT or TDS icon is on.
- Connect the conductivity electrode to the side conductivity connector.
- If required, calibrate the electrode.
- Place the electrode in the sample solution and read the value on the display.
- When finished, unplug the electrode and rinse in distilled water.
- Hold the starting button of the salinity meter down
- Record the data shown in the datalogger in your notebook.
- Setting up the hot plate/heating mantle.
- Obtain a hot mantle.
- Place the round-bottom flask on the coating of the heating mantle .
- Using a measuring tube, measure 250ml of water using a measuring cylinder.
- Pour the water into the round-bottom flask.
- Setting up the copper pipes
- Take 9 copper pipes
- Using a wire cutter, cut them into smaller pipes (0.355 mm, 30 cm)
- Insert the copper wire bender into the pipes
- Bend it using force (only the end into 45º) (alternate pipes)
- Switch on the glue gun
- With the help of a glue gun, glue them horizontally in a straight line in this manner
- After gluing them together, do a strength test.
- Apply a little force and check if it breaks.
- Use a string to suspend them above ground level(on top of the beaker)
- Start to vary the angle.
- Continue with the process of inserting a rubber tubing to allow the water to pass through the copper pipes.
- Setting up the rubber tubings
- Attach one 4mm tube into the tap as shown below.
- Cut 9 x 1m length of tubes
- Connect the rubber tubes to the 5 pin rubber tubing splitter
- After doing that, continue connecting the tube to another 5 pin pipe splitter.
- Connect the rubber tubing to the copper pipes by inserting them into the copper pipes.
- Seal the rubber tubes to the pipes using tape to hold it in place
- Repeat the same procedure to ensure an output of the water
Conducting the experiment
- Arrange and secure the copper pipes in the (4,3,2,1) configuration with the glue gun
- Test out the tubing system.
- Ensure that the cool water can run through the rubber hoses and pipes smoothly
- Switch on the power button of the machine
- Press the ‘cal’ button of the machine .
- Wait a white to ensure that the reading is “0.00” at first.
- Place a small circular filtration paper on the weighing balance of the balance.
- Using a small spoon, add 9.75 grams of salt onto the filtration paper.
- Ensure that the reading on the machine is “9.75” g.
- Close the glass door.
- Take out the filtration paper with the salt and add in into the water that is in the round -bottom flask.
- Stir it with a glass rod.
- Test the salinity level of the water to ensure that it has the same salinity as saltwater. (Refer to the steps stated above)
- Suspend the configuration of pipes above the opening of the hot plate with string, whereby the rows of pipes are slanted at an angle to allow the water droplets to fall off into the beaker due to gravity.
- Place beaker below the lower end of the slanted pipes
- Using the stopwatch , allow the water to evaporate for 1h.
- Record down the amount of water in the round bottom flask and the amount of water found in the collecting beaker
- Create a graph to show the relationship between
- the angle at which the copper pipes are slanting at and the amount of water collected in the beaker.
- Repeat all of the above to test for:
- the flow rate of water through the hollow copper pipes and the rate of condensation
- the amount of heat used for the experiment and the rate of condensation
1) Measure the salinity of the freshwater in the beaker to ensure that it has a lower amount of salinity than that of the hot plate.
2) Switch on the salinity meter and data logger
3) Record the salinity
4) Note the level of water in the beaker.
5) Write it down
Risk and Safety
Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
Harm it can cause us
How to avoid it
It can burn our fingers or hands. To avoid burns, inspect the glue gun for cracks in the handle and body. Make sure there isn't old glue clogging the nozzle. If you find any type of damage to the glue gun or to the cord, do not use it! Place the glue gun on a secure surface such as a table. Place a sheet of paper underneath it to protect the table surface. Place a piece of aluminum foil under the nozzle of the glue gun to catch the overflow of glue that will run out of the nozzle. Be sure to keep your glue gun away from open flames. Use them with extreme caution and wear cloth gloves while operating it. If there are any accidents, seek immediate medical attention and report to a teacher.
Hot Plate/Heating Mantle
The surface of the hot plate will become hot when it is in use. Someone could touch the sides and burn their hands which is what we want to prevent . We need to be careful and prevent coming into contact with the surface of the hot plate. The hot plate will only be used in the lab while we are performing the experiment and only by us. Hot water that might be spilled has to be cleaned up with a cloth immediately using a damp cloth. In case of scalding, place your hand immediately under running cold water and put antiseptic cream on the affected area. The hot plate must not be carried from its original spot when it is full of hot water so as to prevent scalding. The hot plate is only to be used under adult supervision. The water level of the liquid in the beaker on the hot plate has to be lower than the maximum mark.
The cutter will be used to cut the copper pipes, to be inserted into rubber hoses. If we are not careful, the cutter may slip and we will injure our hand, causing cuts in our skin. In the event that this happens, apply pressure to the wound. Once the bleeding has stopped, clean the wound with water an alcohol swab or antiseptic cream before applying a plaster to prevent infection of the wound. To prevent this, we will follow standard safety procedures taught to us during ADMT such as, we will not put our hand in the path of the tool or too close to the tool. We will also make sure that when we are using the wire cutters, everyone in the group will be aware.
We will be adjusting each variable (independent, dependent, constant) on a case-by-case basis.
Average Time for all tests: Half an Hour (30 Minutes)
Independent: Flow Rate of Water (In)
Dependent: The amount of water collected in the beaker(ml)
Constant: Angle of the pipes
Flow Rate of Water (In) (ml/m)
Amount of water collected in the beaker(ml)
Independent: Amount of heat applied to the salt water
Dependent: The amount of water collected in the beaker
Constant: Flow Rate of Water (In)
Amount of heat applied to the beaker
Amount of water collected in the beaker
Independent: Angle of Pipes
Dependent: The amount of water collected in the beaker
Constant: Configuration of Pipes
Angle of pipes
The amount of water collected in the beaker (ml)
We will be creating a flow chart of using the results obtained from the table to compare data effectively.
How we will measure the flow rate of water
Firstly, we measured the maximum length the knob on the tap can turn.
Then, we came up with different lengths to change as a variable.
From there, we turned the handle anti-clockwise to those lengths.
After that, we used a measuring tube and a stopwatch to measure how long it takes for the water to reach the mark of 100ml.
Finally, to get the flow rate, we divided the length by the time taken. This gives us the ml/m.
After the collection of all the data, we can make these conclusions:
1) The amount of water supplied by the tap will vary when we rotate it in an anti-clockwise direction. The greater the pressure of the tap, the greater the amount of water will be supplied through the copper pipes. The pipes will be cooled at a faster rate resulting in cooler pipes. The rate of condensation will then be greater resulting a greater amount of water to be collected into the beaker of water (collection beaker).
2) The amount of water collected in the set amount of time will vary when we change the angle of of the copper pipes.If the angle is too small (e.g 10º) or too large (e.g 90º), the water will not be able to reach the beaker, which will affect the amount of water collected in the end. Thus, the appropriate angle is 45º as it is in between 0º and 90º.
3) The amount of water collected in the beaker will increase as the amount of heat applied to the salt water in the beaker on the hot plate increases. The boiling point of water is 100℃. Thus, we think that the appropriate temperature is 100℃.
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