5. Conclusion

Summary of Findings
The amount of water collected in the beaker is affected by
a)Temperature
b)Steepness of pipes
c)Flow rate of water flowing through the pipes.

a)The greater the temperature of the heating mantle, the greater the rate of evaporation. 450°C was the best.
b)The perfect steepness of pipes is 50° to allow the water to flow down and drop on the V-shaped metal strip.
c)The greater the flow rate of water, the greater the rate of condensation on the copper pipes.In our case, flow rate #3 is the most optimum flow rate.

Practical Applications
In future experiments, the water used to cool down machineries or its system while allowing water to condense on it can be of a greater speed than usual. The same amount of water can be used to cool down the system. The temperature at which the water is being boiled at can be increased so that a greater amount of water is produced. The boilers of the systems can be of a higher temperature, applying a greater amount of heat to the water. The angle of steepness shows us that in any system, for the water to condense on a surface and also be able to flow down the surface of the condensing material, it has to be of a certain angle so that gravity can do its magic. Similarly,  during distillation, if a lab experiment is being carried out, the liebig condenser has to be of a certain angle so that the water that condensed on the cooler side can flow down on its own. In future developments, a system can be produced which allows gravity to cause the water to move into the collection area to minimise the use of excess manpower/energy and machines. Time will also be saved.



Areas for further study


Further studies can be done on how other factors also affects the accuracy and the efficiency of the experiment .The research can be applied to the development of a more advanced real-life model and serve the people with needs for water.The factors that can be introduced are development of an experiment which collects the escaped steam efficiently and successfully. There can be a greater amount of variables that can be changed in the experiment unlike ours in which we only changed 3 parts of the experiment.


The size of the opening from which the steam is coming out from can  be researched into and instead of a For example, small opening like our experiment, the opening can be larger to allow a greater amount of steam to condense.


A wider variety of materials can be used to maximise the potential of the experiment. For example, inside of duct tape to attach the aluminium strips to the copper pipes, double sided tape could be used. Instead of using copper pipes, pipes of different materials can be used.


This can also be an area that can be researched on- Investigation whether the material of the pipes affects the experiment. Instead of rubber tubings, copper pipes can be an excellent choice so that we will not have the need to connect the rubber tubings which will burst under pressure sometimes.  Using copper pipes also adds a medium for the water to travel.With a better understanding of the different types of materials in the market, the experiment can be better designed and enhancement can be done to existing materials and can be incorporated into the experiment.


Other desalination systems such as solar powered desalination,distillation etc. can be simulated in a smaller scale in our laboratory. With enough research done, experimenting of the experiment can be followed up by inventing or innovating better distillation systems.



Impact on society

Singapore is greatly lacking in  water resources. According to a newspaper clipping dating back to 1962, it is stated that Singapore will end its water treaty with Malaysia in 1960. (Straits, 1963)


“We are doing our best to develop Singapore as a liveable and sustainable city. Trying to manage the consumption of scarce resources, like water, energy, and pricing them properly so people have the incentive to save and not waste these resources” ~ Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong  AT THE OPENING OF THE WORLD CITIES SUMMIT/ SINGAPORE INTERNATIONAL WATER WEEK/ CLEANENVIRO SUMMIT SINGAPORE, 1 JUNE 2014, MARINA BAY SANDS (Prime Minister's Office, 2014)

According to the prime minister, we have to start saving our energy resources
This research will allow Singapore to look into distillation to provide for its citizens. Currently, Singapore is using desalination systems. However, using our research, they can vary the different factors resulting in the greatest amount of water to be produced. Our research will also have a greater impact on rural areas as there is a lack of advanced technology in those area. By setting up our simple experiment, they can allow themselves to produce water efficiently.


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